The economic development and social dialogue in the Euro-Mediterranean region:

The concepts of development and growth have always been considered as equal, and yet this concept, which restricts development in its only economic dimension, has been gradually abandoned, thus creating significant differences between the two concepts. We can now distinguish between the concept of growth on the one hand as a continuous increase in one or several long periods of the far index: for the nation and the net public product. On the other hand, the concept of development, which is described as a combination of mental and social changes that make the nation able to develop its aggregate product cumulatively and sustainably. Thus, the economic development is in its aspects is defined as growth, but it cannot be limited to it. The Mediterranean represents a difference between the developed countries on its northern coast and the other side of the developing countries on its southern shore. In view of the complementarities and economic stakes that characterize these two aspects, the EU has continued from global Mediterranean policy to the European Neighbors Policy through the Barcelona Declaration, to ensure the development of economic partnerships that promote the reduction of the development gap in the region. However, although the various Euro-Mediterranean partnerships relative growth by country was favored, as the differences in the development of the living conditions among the northern and southern Mediterranean populations have not been yet reduced. In this context, the European Union, through the revision of the Neighbors Policy, tried to promote a new economic model, inclusive growth, where it focuses on equal opportunities and economic growth, the raise in incomes and the purchasing power of individuals to contain the manifestations of discrimination and servitude, within the context of political instability and the absence of long-term reforms in the region. It has been proved that the new Neighbors policy implementation is difficult. Moreover, in addition to the implemented development model and the structural and cyclical obstacles to the region, it seems difficult to imagine the possibility of significant and effective economic reforms without the democratization of the economic and social decision-making processes of the concerned countries. In fact, the social dialogue, through prior consultation between different parties, enables stakeholders to gain the ownership of the process. This is one of the necessary guarantees to implement consensual and effective reforms. However, according to the International Labor Office, social dialogue requires a favorable political and social climate, as well as, the respect for fundamental rights, the freedom of association and collective bargaining, as well as, strong political will and appropriate institutional support.

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